Thursday 4. June 2020

History of the Town of Příbor

Příbor - one of the oldest towns in the northwest Moravia - lies on a slightly undulating landscape along both banks of the Lubina River. It is surrounded with a nice scenery of the foothills Beskydy Mountains foothills inluding a view of the Štramberská Trůba Castle and the picturesque village of Hukvaldy with a casle as well as the famed Radhošť Mountain.

The town was founded, as a settlement having the town's rights, by Count Frank of Hückeswagen in 1251. The first written mention of the town can be found in a document of Margrave Přemysl - later King Přemysl Otakar II - of December 12, 1251, in which Přemysl confirmed that the Count had established, among others, the parish Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary and a cloister in Příbor. At the beginning of the town, the Příbor square, which is of a rectangular shape, was diagonally cut through with an age-old "Polish" trade route. According to historic sources, the name of the town was Vriburch then (later Freiberg in German and Przybor in Czech).

That were probably financial difficulties which compelled Count Frank of Hückeswagen to sell his property to Bishop Bruno of Olomouc, who, later, returned the west part of that property (the Příbor and Frenštát areas) to the Hückeswagen family, however, as a hereditary Bishop fief only.

So Příbor, including the Hukvaldy Castle, became one of the administrative and business centres of the Olomouc Bishopric fief. During the 14th century, the Příbor fief was more and more pawned so that the Bishop of Olomouc incorporated it directly in the estate of the Hukvaldy Bishopric in 1359. In 1389, Bishop Nicolas of Ryzmburk granted the town of Příbor the escheat privilege and the right to thoroughly fortify the town with ramparts.

The pawn owners often changed, with the following of them were the most famous: King Sigmund of Luxembourgh, Jan Tovačovský of Cimburk, Mikuláš Sokol of Lamberk, Jan Čapek of Sány, Jan Talafús of Ostrov, and King George of Poděbrady.

The first expansion in the town construction occurred after 1480, when Bishop Tas of Boskovice pawned Příbor to his brothers. In the 16th century, the economic power of the town substantially grew. At that time, Příbor reached the highest possible independence on the bishopric estates. Handicrafts developed and the first guilds were established then. The economic prosperity of the town also allowed the town to increase its property.

In 1617, Příbor became, for an annual rental of 9000 golden coins paid to the Olomouc Bishopric, a leaseholder of the whole of the estate of Hukvaldy for 6 years. During the Thirty Years' War, the town was exposed to raids of the troops of all the fighting parties. A period of the town economic decline followed.

In the late 17th century, Charles II of Liechtenstein, a Bishop of Olomouc, brought Piarists into Příbor. The Piarists founded a college and grammar school in the town in 1694. In 1700, after the school had been opened, teaching in four Latin classes and three primary-school classes started. That had been why Příbor has became an educational and cultural centre in the region. Due to the school reforms ordered by Marie Therese, the Piarist grammar school was dissolved in 1777 and a main school, left under the Piarists' control, was founded in Příbor. During following years of the 19th century, the Příbor school system went through many changes. The year of 1875 is surely worthy of quotation, as the Czech Teachers' Institute was founded in the town then, which was the Moravia's second-oldest.

Although Příbor has been a Czech town since its founding, the German minority succeeded in opening a private single-class school in 1882, which ceased to exist as late as the end of the Second World War. However, the town remained under the Czech control, which was of a substantial importance for the development of the Czech associations and societies in Příbor. Owing to the Piarist cultural tradition, the first educational and supportive associations occurred as early as the 1860s.

However, a decline in the manufacture and trade occurred in the town in the late 19th century. That had been why Příbor was overtaken, in the terms of the economic development, by many fast-growing surrounding towns. Nevertheless, textile mills and other factories, such as the I. Fluss's drapery factory (founded in 1883), the A. Reiser's textile mill (today's Lonka), the S. Mandler's mill (today's Primus), the R. Schnürer's mill and the F. Neusser's tile stove works, were founded. The crisis of the 1920s caused some factories to be dissolved. There was a lack of job opportunities in the town, which led to an increase in unemployment and poverty. After the Munich Agreement, the Czech town of Příbor was, among other towns, ceded to the German territory (called the Sudeten) in 1938. The German troops invade the town on October 10th, 1938. Many residents were involved in the fight against the Nazi invaders. Příbor was liberated on May 6th 1945.

The post-war period brought large political and economic changes into the town. However, the year of 1948 absolutely changed the course of the town development. The factories and trades were gradually nationalised and put under the state ownership, the agriculture was gradually put under collective control and the traditional school system has been dissolved. Only the grammar school started to operate again after the war. Today, the grammar school (known under the name Masaryk's Grammar School) has been the only secondary school in the town.

As the town of Příbor is one of the oldest in the District of Nový Jičín and, therefore, includes many buildings and monuments valuable in both historic and artistic terms, it was declared a Historic Town Preserve in 1989.


Type: History
LAST MODIFY: Iveta Busková (Město Příbor) org. 139, 27.03.2013 v 13:26 hodin